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Сitizens are socialized to look for the signs of danger around them whether it is a suspicious- looking man or an unattended package. Due to their multiplicity, widely varied threats, such as crimes, terrorist attacks, car accidents, infrastructure failures, different kinds of injures, are considered to be inevitable in urban environments. As a result, a vague premonition of danger becomes a part of everyday travels supporting the reproduction of a climate of urban fear. In this essay, I would like to take a closer look at how people experience this fear in their everyday life.
В статье рассматриваются вопросы прогнозирования микроклимата городов и ветроэнергетического потенциала жилых зданий применительно к России, Северной и Восточной Европе. В исследовании проанализирована климатическая структура крупного города, биоклиматический комфорт, а также представлен климатический анализ на примере Москвы. Уточнена взаимосвязь ветрового режима с климатическими и градостроительными факторами. Представлены возможные подходы к оценке ветроэнергетического потенциала здания. Проанализирован зарубежный опыт и классификация факторов, влияющих на размещение ветроэнергетических установок. Отмечена возможность детализации данных микроклимата по ветровому режиму для размещения ветроэлектростанций с учетом благоустройства и озеленения городов. Рассмотрен вопрос первичной привязки ветроэнергетических установок в строительстве на основе ветроэнергетического потенциала зданий и территорий. Концепция "Умного города" рассматривается с целью формирования системы управления ветроэнергетическим потенциалом в городском строительстве и оценки комфортности аэрации для пешеходов с интеграцией в градостроительное энергетическое моделирование (УБЭМ).
The purpose of this book is to show the specifics of the formation of cultural landscapes and geocultural images of Northern and Arctic cities in the context of the concept of post-urbanism. The ontological and phenomenological category of cold, which is key for understanding this specificity, has a decisive influence on the formation of both material and expressive (mental) environments and identities of the inhabitants of Northern cities. The image of cold can be considered as an important component of the symbolic capital of the Northern and Arctic cities, as well as a field of implementation and struggle of various post-colonial practices.
The purpose of this article is to show the specifics of the formation of cultural landscapes and geocultural images of Northern and Arctic cities in the context of the concept of post-urbanism. The ontological and phenomenological category of cold, which is key for understanding this specificity, has a decisive influence on the formation of both material and expressive (mental) environments and identities of the inhabitants of Northern cities. The image of cold can be considered as an important component of the symbolic capital of the Northern and Arctic cities, as well as a field of implementation and struggle of various post-colonial practices. The phenomenon of co-spatiality, basic for understanding post-urban trends of social development, acquires a special configuration in the cultural landscapes of Northern cities, contributing to the enrichment of the semantic space of post-urbanism as a whole.
The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) – one of the USA federal government’s policy tool for preserving and encouraging the development and rehabilitation of affordable rental housing. LIHTC provides an incentive for home developers to build, buy and refurbish housing for low-income taxpayers and also provides a non-refundable credit for those who invest in low-income housing projects as a means of stimulating the flow of capital into this sector. The type of housing structures typically used for this credit are multi-family dwellings.
The article reflects the main features of the new Strategy for Socioeconomic Development of the Northern and Arctic Regions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of Russia. The work employs standard methodological tools for the development of the regional strategic documents, such as assessment of the situation, general principles of the socioeconomic development of the Northern and Arctic regions, characteristics of the main tools and expected results of the strategy, and spatial planning issues. The new policy is aimed to soften development contrasts between the Northern and Arctic municipalities of Krasnoyarsk krai. Big expectations are associated with the introduction of innovations in the delivery of the critical services and products to the remote towns and settlements of the area. The main methodological innovation applied in the Strategy is the establishment of three project offices working on the problem on three large-scale levels. These are the “Person”, “Settlement” and “Territory” project offices. Their tasks involve ensuring synergy between the government, large and small businesses, and social bodies. It is assumed that in the year 2030 the implementation of the proposed measures will enable the Krasnoyarsk Territory to regain its leading position in the development of the Russian Arctic it used to hold during the first decades of the Soviet period
The dichotomy of the market initiative and central planning is considered to be one of the main issues in the governance of public transport provision. It relates to the rights of either the operators or authorities to design public transport services. The advantages and disadvantages of these models can motivate the reforms of public transport governance. Such reforms usually result in significant changes in the technical specifications of the public transport services. In this paper, we attempt to study the changes in the Moscow bus network introduced within the reform of public transport governance, the so-called ‘new model of partnership with private operators’ scheme. In 2016, all market-initiated minibus routes were replaced by those directly designed by the Moscow authorities. Since then, the private branch of the Moscow bus system came under a central planning regime with no room for market initiative. The large changes in the network in 2016 opened up a discussion on the impact of public transport governance on the network structure. This paper provides an analysis of the land passenger transport network of 2015 and 2016. It can be useful to describe the paths of network development under different regulatory regimes.
This paper focuses on the Tsoi Wall in Moscow, an iconic place on Russia’s music map that appeared in Moscow in 1990 in memory of the cult Soviet rock musician Viktor Tsoi, to develop a framework for studying non-auratic music place—that is, places that are not connected with the biographies of musicians or musical events, but emerge directly from the experiences of visitors and fans. These places are constantly negotiated and only lightly formalized, but are nevertheless enduring. To analyze this type of place, we propose a concept of institutionalization “in becoming.” The case of the Tsoi Wall reveals that light formalization (vague and changing positions and rules, and openness to different interpretations of a place and ways of using it) leads to the recognition of the place as a significant one and to its popularity. We put institutionalization “in becoming” in a wider context and juxtapose it with well-studied musical places in Europe and the US.
The article shows the inseparable connection between the topics of the main centers of Russian regional science and the properties of the space that they are studying. The diversity of the thematic structure of research centers is derived from differences in economic geographical and geopolitical position, sectoral structure of the economy, age of economic development of the studied areas of the Russian space. However, the most important factor differentiating the Russian space is the density of economic activity, which determines the level of development of the territory. Within the Russian space, significant undeveloped territories of the North, the Arctic, Siberia, and the Far East are of particular interest, in which extensive buffer zones are distinguished between the main settlement zone and low‐density periphery. They constitute the essential specificity of the Russian space. Another feature is the presence of colossal “ownerless” spaces that are outside the influence of any nearby major center and therefore are forced to focus on the federal capital, Moscow.
The article analyzes the internal and external connectivity of passenger transport systems in Russian regions with vast peripheral areas based on a case study of three key regions with average and low development levels—Krasnoyarsk krai, the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), and Magadan oblast. These regions differ from each other by their position in the country’s transport system and are characterized by significant intraregional differences in the level and nature of transport connectivity. To solve this problem, the authors use an integrated methodology to analyze transport connectivity and isolation. This approach includes not only analysis of statistics on transport networks, frequency, time expenditures, and fares for all modes of passenger transport in regions, but also qualitative sociological methods: in-depth interviews with passengers and employees of transport terminals. Differences in the accessibility of the main regional settlements are determined, and transport areas differing from each other in terms of transport reliability are distinguished. The public transport systems of the studied regions are notable for the low regularity of connections, the absence of alternatives along many routes, occasional and insufficient reliability of transportation due to the pronounced seasonal nature, as well as the important role of implicit (shadow) transport services
The aim of this article is to highlight the connection between academic sound research projects and urban studies and practices in perspective of the sonic aspect of place identity. The author explicates a chronological parallel between the starting point of Sound Studies as an interdisciplinary research field and the explosion of interest in sound in the field of urbanism. This connection is being called the sonic renaissance. The author considers the conceptual basis of sonic discourse in urbanism and comes to a conclusion that the term “soundscape”, the most popular in urban sound discourse, is no more relevant for serious discussion in context of urban environment. In order to avoid such mistakes in the field of place identity research, the author comes up with an alternative term, “identity of a place”. Compared to the “place identity” term, “identity of a place” opens up new opportunities for sound research in the context of local identity and prevents such investigations from fall- ing into subjectivism.
The article provides a comparative assessment of the level of urbanization within the Arctic territories of the world according to common criteria. All settlements of the Arctic with a population exceeding 5,000 people are analyzed, regardless of their status. The border of the Arctic coincides with the southernmost of three options most often used in the international studies on the socio-economic geography of the Arctic. According to the results of the assessment, the level of urbanization in many regions of foreign Arctic is lower than the estimates given in relevant scientific literature. Specific features of the development of Arctic cities are considered, the main types of cities in the Russian and foreign Arctic are identified. While choosing the typology criteria, the following factors were taken into account: the influence of remoteness from other urban centers on the economic development (the importance of this factor is high in the Arctic due to the rare urban network); factors of socio-economic development in the «knowledge economy» era; transport and geographical location etc. As a result, three main criteria were chosen, i. e. the presence of its own university, administrative status, location within the agglomeration of a larger city. Four types of Arctic cities were identified: 1. Key multifunctional (university) cities. 2 Peripheral administration centers. 3. Suburban cities of different specializations. 4. Remote industrial centers. The criterion of coastal position was used to distinguish subtypes. As a rule, cities of the first type have the status of a national or regional administrative capital (with some exceptions), and are university cities. Almost half of the urban population of the Arctic lives in such cities (Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Anchorage, Tromso, Reykjavik, etc.). The second type includes regional capitals without their own university (Salekhard, Yellowknife, etc.). The cities of the third type are mainly concentrated around the cities of the first type (Murmashi, Wasilla, etc.). Finally, the fourth type of cities embraces remote cities that do not have either capital status or an independent university. This group includes mainly cities located near the mineral deposits (Novy Urengoy, Labrador City, etc.). The specific feature of the Russian Arctic is a higher proportion of inland (non-port) suburban cities (most rapidly losing population) and remote industrial centers (conditionally «cities near deposits»). The foreign Arctic has a high proportion of the cities of the first type (capital university cities).