Address: 13, bld 4 Myasnitskaya str., Moscow 101000,
Phone: +7 (495) 772-95-90 ext. 12-604, 12-605,
12-368 (transportation planning),
12-150 (PR & communications)
В статье рассматриваются вопросы прогнозирования микроклимата городов и ветроэнергетического потенциала жилых зданий применительно к России, Северной и Восточной Европе. В исследовании проанализирована климатическая структура крупного города, биоклиматический комфорт, а также представлен климатический анализ на примере Москвы. Уточнена взаимосвязь ветрового режима с климатическими и градостроительными факторами. Представлены возможные подходы к оценке ветроэнергетического потенциала здания. Проанализирован зарубежный опыт и классификация факторов, влияющих на размещение ветроэнергетических установок. Отмечена возможность детализации данных микроклимата по ветровому режиму для размещения ветроэлектростанций с учетом благоустройства и озеленения городов. Рассмотрен вопрос первичной привязки ветроэнергетических установок в строительстве на основе ветроэнергетического потенциала зданий и территорий. Концепция "Умного города" рассматривается с целью формирования системы управления ветроэнергетическим потенциалом в городском строительстве и оценки комфортности аэрации для пешеходов с интеграцией в градостроительное энергетическое моделирование (УБЭМ).
The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) – one of the USA federal government’s policy tool for preserving and encouraging the development and rehabilitation of affordable rental housing. LIHTC provides an incentive for home developers to build, buy and refurbish housing for low-income taxpayers and also provides a non-refundable credit for those who invest in low-income housing projects as a means of stimulating the flow of capital into this sector. The type of housing structures typically used for this credit are multi-family dwellings.
The article reflects the main features of the new Strategy for Socioeconomic Development of the Northern and Arctic Regions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory of Russia. The work employs standard methodological tools for the development of the regional strategic documents, such as assessment of the situation, general principles of the socioeconomic development of the Northern and Arctic regions, characteristics of the main tools and expected results of the strategy, and spatial planning issues. The new policy is aimed to soften development contrasts between the Northern and Arctic municipalities of Krasnoyarsk krai. Big expectations are associated with the introduction of innovations in the delivery of the critical services and products to the remote towns and settlements of the area. The main methodological innovation applied in the Strategy is the establishment of three project offices working on the problem on three large-scale levels. These are the “Person”, “Settlement” and “Territory” project offices. Their tasks involve ensuring synergy between the government, large and small businesses, and social bodies. It is assumed that in the year 2030 the implementation of the proposed measures will enable the Krasnoyarsk Territory to regain its leading position in the development of the Russian Arctic it used to hold during the first decades of the Soviet period
The dichotomy of the market initiative and central planning is considered to be one of the main issues in the governance of public transport provision. It relates to the rights of either the operators or authorities to design public transport services. The advantages and disadvantages of these models can motivate the reforms of public transport governance. Such reforms usually result in significant changes in the technical specifications of the public transport services. In this paper, we attempt to study the changes in the Moscow bus network introduced within the reform of public transport governance, the so-called ‘new model of partnership with private operators’ scheme. In 2016, all market-initiated minibus routes were replaced by those directly designed by the Moscow authorities. Since then, the private branch of the Moscow bus system came under a central planning regime with no room for market initiative. The large changes in the network in 2016 opened up a discussion on the impact of public transport governance on the network structure. This paper provides an analysis of the land passenger transport network of 2015 and 2016. It can be useful to describe the paths of network development under different regulatory regimes.
The article shows the inseparable connection between the topics of the main centers of Russian regional science and the properties of the space that they are studying. The diversity of the thematic structure of research centers is derived from differences in economic geographical and geopolitical position, sectoral structure of the economy, age of economic development of the studied areas of the Russian space. However, the most important factor differentiating the Russian space is the density of economic activity, which determines the level of development of the territory. Within the Russian space, significant undeveloped territories of the North, the Arctic, Siberia, and the Far East are of particular interest, in which extensive buffer zones are distinguished between the main settlement zone and low‐density periphery. They constitute the essential specificity of the Russian space. Another feature is the presence of colossal “ownerless” spaces that are outside the influence of any nearby major center and therefore are forced to focus on the federal capital, Moscow.
The aim of this article is to highlight the connection between academic sound research projects and urban studies and practices in perspective of the sonic aspect of place identity. The author explicates a chronological parallel between the starting point of Sound Studies as an interdisciplinary research field and the explosion of interest in sound in the field of urbanism. This connection is being called the sonic renaissance. The author considers the conceptual basis of sonic discourse in urbanism and comes to a conclusion that the term “soundscape”, the most popular in urban sound discourse, is no more relevant for serious discussion in context of urban environment. In order to avoid such mistakes in the field of place identity research, the author comes up with an alternative term, “identity of a place”. Compared to the “place identity” term, “identity of a place” opens up new opportunities for sound research in the context of local identity and prevents such investigations from fall- ing into subjectivism.
The article provides a comparative assessment of the level of urbanization within the Arctic territories of the world according to common criteria. All settlements of the Arctic with a population exceeding 5,000 people are analyzed, regardless of their status. The border of the Arctic coincides with the southernmost of three options most often used in the international studies on the socio-economic geography of the Arctic. According to the results of the assessment, the level of urbanization in many regions of foreign Arctic is lower than the estimates given in relevant scientific literature. Specific features of the development of Arctic cities are considered, the main types of cities in the Russian and foreign Arctic are identified. While choosing the typology criteria, the following factors were taken into account: the influence of remoteness from other urban centers on the economic development (the importance of this factor is high in the Arctic due to the rare urban network); factors of socio-economic development in the «knowledge economy» era; transport and geographical location etc. As a result, three main criteria were chosen, i. e. the presence of its own university, administrative status, location within the agglomeration of a larger city. Four types of Arctic cities were identified: 1. Key multifunctional (university) cities. 2 Peripheral administration centers. 3. Suburban cities of different specializations. 4. Remote industrial centers. The criterion of coastal position was used to distinguish subtypes. As a rule, cities of the first type have the status of a national or regional administrative capital (with some exceptions), and are university cities. Almost half of the urban population of the Arctic lives in such cities (Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Anchorage, Tromso, Reykjavik, etc.). The second type includes regional capitals without their own university (Salekhard, Yellowknife, etc.). The cities of the third type are mainly concentrated around the cities of the first type (Murmashi, Wasilla, etc.). Finally, the fourth type of cities embraces remote cities that do not have either capital status or an independent university. This group includes mainly cities located near the mineral deposits (Novy Urengoy, Labrador City, etc.). The specific feature of the Russian Arctic is a higher proportion of inland (non-port) suburban cities (most rapidly losing population) and remote industrial centers (conditionally «cities near deposits»). The foreign Arctic has a high proportion of the cities of the first type (capital university cities).
The article analyzes the sensory aspects of urban life in one of the districts in the outskirts of Moscow. Revising the concepts of sensory ordering of space, I analyze the ways how urban dwellers in this district order the space by smell perception. I define three components of sensory ordering: i) the language of sensory experience, ii) ascription of meanings to space and smells localization, iii) actions aimed at supporting the desirable olfactory landscape. The process of creating this language and negotiations about the desirable olfactory landscape are based on adopting the special terms and visualizing the smells. This language allows to interact with the various agents on different levels of power, to transform and control the space. The production of meanings, based on smells, influences the district identity. Both positive and negative smell perception produce the value of the district, while the negative smells acts differently and devalues the other city territories. Citizens actions support the sensory normativity: through sensory patrolling (different ways of detecting the smells) and microordering (creating the cleanliness and freshness within neighborhoods). These ways of ordering sensory experience and creating olfactory landscape help to explain the interaction between district dwellers, the principles of how their agency is formed, and the principles of being responsible for the space.
In the article the philosophical aspects of urban sound production are being discussed. The sound is considered as an inseperable part of urban processes, with its special procedural and symbolic meaning. The author proposes concepts of «sonic agency» and «sonic violence» and inscripts them into the philosophical tradition of investigations devoted to power relations. The process of sound making in the city space is being described as an act of sonic violence and is being approached with the help of examples on various spacial and temporal scales.
The purpose of the study is to develop a methodological approach to assess the infrastructure potential of the territory as a tool for monitoring the effectiveness of the implementation of the state regional policy in the field of infrastructure development.
The algorithm for comparative assessment of the infrastructure potential of regions is substantiated in the article. The authors believe that a regular assessment the level of infrastructure development (infrastructure capacity) macro-regions and regions – subjects of the Russian Federation, along with the monitoring of the achievement of the targets established, should be provided within the framework of implementation approved at the Federal and regional levels, of programmes and plans for infrastructure development. The proposed method of cost estimation of the region's infrastructure potential is based on the use of an integral indicator of the territory's fund saturation, taking into account the qualitative characteristics of the state of fixed assets.
The study revealed a significant spatial differentiation of Russian regions in terms of infrastructure potential that helped to group them by the level of its development. The difference between the maximum and minimum values of the infrastructure potential assessment (even without taking into account the federal cities) exceeds 730 times! The cities of federal significance – Moscow, St. Petersburg, Sevastopol, as well as the republics of Crimea and Tatarstan, Krasnodar, Moscow and Kaliningrad regions have the maximum infrastructure potential. The infrastructure potential is evenly decreasing to the East and North of the country. The republics of Tyva, Sakha (Yakutia), Magadan region, and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug have the lowest indicators of territory's fund saturation and correspondingly low level of infrastructure potential development. More than a quarter of all Russian regions have a lower level of infrastructure development than the national average. Based on the correlation analysis, it was found that the size of the territory's infrastructure potential has a direct positive impact on the inflow of investments to the regions and the growth of GRP, and therefore is one of the important factors of economic growth and increasing the competitiveness of the regional economy.
The results obtained within the study can be applied in the practice of managing the development of territories when forecasting and developing strategies of the socio-economic development of new macro-regions of Russia, and also used for monitoring the state policy of infrastructure development.
The article is the list of the books and dissertations dedicated to the history of public transit in the cities of the former USSR. Main part of these publications are keeping in the storages in the principal libraries of the former USSR. Its signatures (codes) in these libraries are indicated in the brackets. The bibliographical list is ordered in the alphabet of city’s (region’s) names, in each city (region) – in chronological order. From 766 titles Moscow takes 97, St. Petersburg – 59, Khar’kov – 47, Kiev – 40, Nizhniy Novgorod – 32, Baku – 30, Odessa – 25, Minsk – 20, Riga – 15, Tbilisi – 14, Krasnodar – 12, Kazan’ – 11, Perm’ – 10, Vitebsk – 9, Astrakhan’ – 9, Saratov – 9, Samara – 8.
Cultural geography is a rather young and not completely institutionalized geographical science in the Russian realm. There are no cultural geographical atlases present in the state of the art, Russian classifications of thematic atlases, though one of the options includes “the atlases of culture”. A series of S.Ya. Suschiy’s atlases of the history of Russian culture and regional historical and cultural atlases may serve as some examples of atlases using the materials of cultural geography. These atlases are rarely original in terms of the means of cartographic visualizations. They are often merely historical or even hardly include any maps being only formally named as atlases while in reality looking like regional encyclopedias. The phonomena of cultural geography have received a certain development among thematic maps of complex atlases. Though the maps of cultural artifacts prevail in this case there are the traditions emerging of mapping cultural heritage and also of cultural geographical regionalization. There are such examples present in the volume “History. Culture” of the National atlas of Russia and also in some thematic products of neighboring disciplines like ethnic, ethnographic and ethnogeographic atlases. However, one can hardly witness any specific for cultural geography mapping means or approaches even in these latter cases. Mental maps could be regarded as potentially prospective trend for creating atlases specifically within cultural geography. In this regard, there is a need to overcome the existing dichotomy of mental maps like graphic means of picturing the human perceptions of their environments and traditional cartographic products focusing on mental representations. The prospect is likely to be focused on the complex cartographic decisions linking spatial representations and certain cultural landscapes.
Some ontological mechanisms making it possible to imagine space and movement as well as to assign them value dimension are described and explained. The phenomenon of travel as a value-loaded real or imaginary relocation in the value-anisotropic space is considered in detail.