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Phone: +7 (495) 772-95-90 ext. 12-604, 12-605,
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Despite harsh natural conditions and remoteness, farming is spread worldwide on Arctic margins. Russia is the leading country by area under agricultural use of the circumpolar territories. Agricultural activities in the northern regions vary from traditional ones such as semi‐nomadic reindeer breeding to technologically smart urban agriculture. These activities are geographically unequally represented, which causes significant regional differences in productivity of agricultural land and labour. Comparative analysis of these basic variables enables us to identify specific patterns of modern agricultural development and their dynamics in northern regions of Russia, comparing them with Northern European countries and North America.
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyse strategy optimization of inventory management taking into account the possibility of deferred payments, delays in receiving revenue and restrictions on vehicle capacity. The study is based on the development of a modification of the multiproduct EOQ-model factoring in: 1) time value of money; 2) possibility of deferred payment negotiated in advance of the order; 3) specific nature of incoming payments, when receipt of revenues from the goods happens after the moment of their delivery; 4) vehicle capacity; 5) situation when the company pays for its orders using the revenues from the goods delivered.
Taking above factors into account, this Article established the necessary and sufficient conditions that must be imposed on the length of the deferred payment for the order, as well as the allowable delay in payment for the goods so that it is possible to make the required payments from the proceeds. Corresponding principles are then demonstrated on a practical case.
The use of scientific developments of this Article will allow to 1) take into account all the above-mentioned features of the supply chain; 2) and to improve the efficiency of inventory management systems when it is necessary to take into account these features.
We used an eye-tracking technique to investigate the effect of green zones and car ownership on the attrac-tiveness of the courtyards of multistorey apartment buildings. Two interest groups—20 people who owned a car and 20 people who did not a car—observed 36 images of courtyards. Images were digitally modified to manipulate the spatial arrangement of key courtyard elements: green zones, parking lots, and children’s play-grounds. The participants were asked to rate the attractiveness of courtyards during hypothetical renting de-cisions. Overall, we investigated whether visual exploration and appraisal of courtyards differed between people who owned a car and those who did not. The participants in both interest groups gazed longer at perceptually salient playgrounds and parking lots than at greenery. We also observed that participants gazed significantly longer at the greenery in courtyards rated as most attractive than those rated as least attractive. They gazed significantly longer at parking lots in courtyards rated as least attractive than those rated as most attractive. Using regression analysis, we further investigated the relationship between gaze fixations on courtyard elements and the attractiveness ratings of courtyards. The model confirmed a significant positive relationship between the number and duration of fixations on greenery and the attractiveness estimates of courtyards, while the model showed an opposite relationship for the duration of fixations on parking lots. Interestingly, the positive association between fixations on greenery and the attractiveness of courtyards was significantly stronger for participants who owned cars than for those who did not. These findings confirmed that the more people pay attention to green areas, the more positively they evaluate urban areas. The results also indicate that urban greenery may differentially affect the preferences of interest groups.
Palimpsest has become a well-known metaphor describing the multiplicity of historical and symbolic layers of a cultural landscape and a place or a city in general. The possibilities of including historical, cultural, urban, regional and critical geography, semiotics, cognitive psychology and finally place branding and marketing into the sphere of palimpsest research are described in the article. This broadens the horizons of ‘place as palimpsest’ concept and turns it into a semiotic model useful in various fields of place management.
Moscow, as one of the largest cities in Europe and the world, has come a long way from the capital of a communist state to a global capitalist city in the last 30 years. The post-socialist transition of the urban space continues, and the legacy of the urban planning policy of the Soviet past will determine the appearance of the city for a long time. The problem this research address is that uneven development affects the quality of the urban environment and the quality of life of residents, especially those who live in segregated or peripheral areas. We proceed from the hypothesis that contemporary Moscow has inherited and perpetuates patterns of spatial inequality that developed in the socialist past. The methodology of the study is based on spatial data analysis: demographic statistics of residential buildings in Moscow, information about commercial buildings, the placement of service facilities, the cost of residential real estate, and historical statistics. The study identified clusters of spatial inequality in Moscow, assessed the quality of the urban environment in these clusters, and gives a comparative assessment of the clusters. The analysis of demographic statistics revealed patterns in the settlement of employees in Moscow. A comparison of modern data with historical data showed the presence of stable patterns in dividing the city into the center and periphery since the period of socialism. We also revealed the existence of a significant middle zone of the city, which, although inferior to the center in terms of environmental quality, is better than late socialist residential areas. The five-floor housing stock, which is located in the periphery and middle part of Moscow, provides a better urban environment than later built districts.
Estimates of the gross urban product (GUP), GUP per capita and GUP growth rates are compared with the level and evolution of gross domestic product (GDP) and gross regional product (GRP) to examine relationships between the structure of urban economies and economic development. Agglomeration economies are manifested in the largest capital cities of Russian regions, but the benefits differ significantly between capital cities since they depend on economic structure and efficiency. A test of the hypothesis that housing construction is a driver of the economic growth of capital city economies was rejected because no causal relationship was found between housing construction and GUP in most of the cities.
This article describes the normative system that attempts to regulate online behaviour in the sphere of premarital romantic relationships of the second-generation migrants whose parents came to Russia from societies of the South Caucasus which regulate female behaviour more strictly. Based on a mixed-method study, which included a survey, a series of semi-structured interviews and digital ethnography, we describe the norms as well as the means by which they are enforced. We show that this normative system is rooted in the cultural concept of namus, which regulates the behaviour of females, while the control function is imposed mainly on their male relatives. We argue however, that these norms are widely circumvented and e-namus (manifestation of namus on the web) can barely prevent second-generation migrant females from having online romance. This brings about a radical change in gender relations altogether. The article contributes to the literature related to offline-online normative transfer, online dating, second-generation migrants’ romantic relationships and intergenerational value change.
The purpose of this chapter is to study the specifics of landscape visualization
of the Arctic geo-cultural space in the context of the processes
of decolonization and post-exoticism on the example of North-Eastern
Chukotka. The study is based on a conceptual analysis of photographs
from my personal expedition archive, and it employs two basic concepts,
landscape assemblage and visual dispositive.In general, the postcolonial landscape of the North-Eastern Chukotka
is characterized by a mixture of the visual dispositives we have identified.
These dispositives, intertwining and interacting with each other,
create multiple, constantly transforming landscape assemblages. In turn,
landscape assemblages are active representatives of the decolonization
of the basic geo-cultures of this Arctic region. In the visual aspect, this
means fragmentation and simultaneously fractalization of the traditional
“colonial view” of the Arctic landscape. Within the framework of the
presented visual dispositives, the phenomena of post-exoticism and internal
exoticism are formed, making it impossible to return to pre-colonial
The purpose of the work is to draw attention to the existing hidden reserves of increasing the efficiency of systems, in which solutions for their optimisation are associated with the analysis of models of problems of the theory of queueing networks (for example, problems of transport support for the supply of multiple orders). We are talking about such models that correlate precisely with the choice of queueing the existing portfolio of orders. Approaches to the optimisation of such systems are considered, allowing to consider the random nature of the change in the rates of fines over time and special additional costs related to the moment of order set formation.
Contributing to literature on composition of social ties of migrants, this article argues that “co-ethnic” ties, often included into analysis as a homogeneous entity, are either the ones obtained in the sending society, thus connecting a migrant to his relatives and neighbors from the community of origin, or the ones acquired in the receiving society and connecting people from different parts of the sending country. Basing on results of a survey of Kyrgyz migrants in Moscow, the authors show that this distinction is associated with difference in patterns, such as economic advancement, attitude toward ethnic category of belonging, and remitting behavior, which together comprise specific modes of integration for migrants. The explanations of these differences are suggested. Also, the mechanism of change of prevalent type of co-ethnic ties in migrants’ ego-networks from “homeland-rooted” to acquired in the receiving society is described.
This paper discusses the recent introduction of master planning tool in the Russian system of urban planning. Public authorities claim that under obsolescence and rigidity of the existing system of spatial planning master plans should become an effective solution for urban growth and development. Despite all the attention, published master plans have an unclear legal status and their introduction often results in some degree of overlap and blurring with existing spatial development institutions. The research critically examines i) how master plans are (not?) being incorporated in existing urban planning institutes ii) the reasons of master planning practice emergence. Going beyond transitional frameworks, the study discusses institutional change in urban planning in a post-socialist city.
We consider transformations of random variables on finite sets by algebraic operations. A system of operations is said to be approximation complete if any random variable may be approximated with arbitrary precision by applying the given operations to mutually independent identically distributed random variables whose distributions have no zero components. We establish some necessary conditions for a function system to be approximation complete and construct examples of approximation incomplete systems.
We argue that limited authoritarian regimes like Putin’s Russia have to work out a delicate balance between suppressing civil society and buying its loyalty by allocating funds to the organizations willing to cooperate with the regime. Using the data on the distribution of presidential grants among civil society organizations working on human rights projects in 2017–2018, we show that organizations whose leaders take part in consultative bodies and pro-governmental organizations such as the All-Russian People’s Front receive larger amounts of money on average. Organizations with links to the parliamentary parties also have some premium in grant disbursement, while affiliation with the ruling party does not increase the amount of funding. These findings imply some degree of political bias in state funding for the third sector in Russia. We also found that professionalism matters, and seasoned civil society organizations have considerably more funding than less experienced organizations in the field.
The report presents an approach to the filtration of alternatives when choosing a counterparty for horizontal cooperation based on multiple criteria. Filtration procedures precede the optimization procedures for multi-criteria decisions. The filtration is based on the theory of binary relations and preserves only alternatives-majorants in relation to a strict order according to a given criterion. Presented approach eliminates ineffective alternatives without significant quality degradation of the resulting choice. These procedures are implemented in a numerical example for the following generalized selection criteria: scalar; ideal point; geometric mean.
The transition to market economy in the post-socialist countries marked the need for the formation of property rights, a legal real estate market and therefore zoning and land-use regulation system. Subsequently, the process of land subdivision has started, and continues up till the present moment. This paper is focused on the practises of land division in two types of territories in Russian cities – that of historic cores and Soviet large housing estates. In post-soviet economy the consequence of the privatization policy shows that it is focused on the premises by themselves, but not the buildings and plots. In this article we highlight the spectrum of problems connected to this phenomenon, focusing on those related to management, financing, and renewal of territories.
The urban agenda in Post-Soviet Russia can be characterized as an ongoing competition of two regulation concepts. The commencing of the Urban Planning Code of Russia in 2004 introduced the concept of legal zoning and land-use regulation, dismissing state’s monopoly over urban planning. However, this concept has been challenged over time by the aspiration of the state to retain control over regulation and, therefore, endorse the tradition of manual control regulation. Presently, the morphological parameters of the urban environment are not treated as subjects of regulation, what gives rise to large-scale development in historical cores. This gap in the regulation system exposes the extreme vulnerability of historical morphotypes in urban centres. In order to address this weakness, the implementation of masterplan and form-based code is currently discussed in the professional community. Form-based code principles accentuate materiality of the urban form and introduce the parameters of physical environment as a prevailing subject of regulation to the zoning system, whereas masterplan is a tool for setting the objectives and principles of the spatial development of the territory. Urban cores of historical cities have become the realm of experimentation with different approaches to regulation and planning. This paper accumulates the empirical experience from the pilot projects of new regulation activities in the so-called ‘historical settlements’ – Kazan, Samara, Orenburg and Saratov. In the paper we address the issue of providing functional and economic flexibility of historical environment, simultaneously ensuring the purpose of heritage preservation and sustainable urban development.
Key words: regulation, form-based code, morphological approach, historical cores.
The research question of the paper is how to utilize ecosystem studies to refresh our research of the contemporary Russian Arctic cities, to deepen our understanding of the difference between resilient and sustainable cities, and to create a methodological approach to measure the resilience capacity of the Arctic cities. The paper describes three main stages-directions of the latest study of the Arctic cities: (i) Arctic urbanization as a global phenomenon; (ii) emphasis on the internal structure of the Arctic city; and (iii) analysis and assessment of the viability and sustainability of Arctic cities. The most important lesson of Soviet studies of the Arctic is the need for a holistic view of the ecosystems of the polar regions, overcoming the temptation to reduce to only one, even a powerful, factor, for example, climate change. Following this methodology, the authors propose a comprehensive approach to assessing the viability of a sample of the 29 largest Arctic cities in Russia, including three blocks of nine indicators covering the external location of the city, internal spatial structure, and structural flexibility of the urban system. As the result of aggregation of three blocks of indicators, an integral index of the viability (resilience capacity) of the Arctic cities to external natural and social crises has been proposed. According to the value of this integral index of vitality, modern Russian Arctic cities are colossally different in the strength of their external position, in the degree of diversity of their spatial and economic structure, in the degree of flexibility of the urban system. Old-developed cities of the European North like Arkhangelsk, Severodvinsk and Onega have the best positions. They are followed by the large Soviet port and industrial centre of Murmansk and most of the single-industry cities in the Murmansk Oblast, and then by the monoprofile cities of Yamal-Nenets autonomous okrug and the capital of Nenets autonomous okrug Naryan-Mar. The list is by large, by Arctic standards, single-industry cities of the Asian Arctic—Norilsk, Nadym, Dudinka and the administrative centre of the Chukotka autonomous okrug Anadyr, which all have the worst positions in terms of resilience capacity. The paradox of our approach to assessing the viability of Russia's Arctic cities is that the further an Arctic city is from the classical canons of a Soviet industrial city, the more resilient it is.
Collective memories of different events often interact. There are multiple possible modes of such interaction. This article explores the interrelation of two memories in the Russian memory landscape: memories of Stalin’s repressions and the first post-Soviet decade, the 1990s. It shows that in museum exhibitions about the repressions, the 1990s are invoked in different modes. The interaction of the two memories has varying outcomes, including “silencing” through cacophonous commemoration and a “magnifying” effect of multidirectional memories. The article aims to open up the discussion of the complexity of the interrelation of the two memories.